Study Material

Reserve Bank of India: History and Function of RBI

Reserve Bank of India: History, Structure and Function of RBI  History The Reserve Bank of India was founded in 1935,  under RBI Act 1934 on the recommendations of John Hilton Young Commission in 1926 which was also  called Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance), is the central bank of the country & was nationalized […]

History of Banking in India

 History of Banking in India In this article, we give you a detailed History of Banking in India prepared from the point of view of exams.   Introduction As per  the Banking Companies Act of 1949, Banking is defined as, A financial institution which accept deposits for the purpose of lending or investment  from the […]

Idioms and Phrases: Practice Questions

  Idioms and Phrases Questions for SBI PO Pre, IBPS PO Pre, LIC AAO, RBI Assistant and other Competitive Exams Directions: In each of the questions below, a phrase is followed by five sentences with some part of it as bold. You have to identify the sentence in which the bold part can be replaced […]

Number series: Concept & Practice

Number series Questions for IBPS PO Pre, SBI PO Pre, IBPS Clerk Mains and SBI Clerk Mains Exams.  Number series Directions : What will come in place of question mark (?) in the following series? 4 18      85      336      1005      ? A.1680 B. 1850 C. 2080  D. 2008   E. 1901   2.      9      265      393      […]

Assessment and Evaluations

                                    Q.1 To make assessment a ‘useful and interesting’ process, one should be careful about  (a) Making comparisons between different students  (b) labeling students as intelligent or average learners  (c) using a variety of ways to collect information about the student’s learning across the scholastic and co-scholastic     boundaries  (d) Using technical language to give […]

Learning through Problem Solving and Constructivism; Memory and Forgetting

Q.1 Which of the following will foster creativity among learners?  (a) Teaching the students the practical value of good education  (b) Providing opportunities to question and to nurture the innate talents of every learner  (c) Emphasizing achievement goals from the beginning of school life  (d) Coaching students for good marks in examination   Q.2 Which […]

Learning, Motivation and Emotion

  Q.1 At lower classes, play-way method of teaching is based on  (a) Theory of physical education Programmes  (b) Principles of methods of teaching  (c) Psychological principles of developing and growth  (d) Sociological principles of teaching   Q.2 “A young child responds to a new situation on the basis of the response made by him/her […]

Inclusive Education

Q.1 Education of children with special needs should be provided (a) Along with other normal children (b) By methods developed for special children in special Schools (c) In special school (d) By Special teachers in special schools   Q.2 A student of V – grade with ‘visual deficiency’ should be (a) Excused to do a […]

Progressive Education

Q.1 The Right to Education Act, 2009 specifies that if the number of children admitted for first class to fifth class is above two hundred then the pupil-teacher ratio required is (a) Thirty (b) Forty (c) Forty-five (d) Fifty   Q.2 Which of the following statements is not true about teaching? (a) Teaching is modifiable […]

Individual Differences and Intelligence; Thought and Language

Q.1 Four distinct stages of children’s intellectual development are identified by  (a) Kohlberg  (b) Erikson  (c) Skinner  (d) Piaget   Q.2 Which of the following is not a sign of an intelligent young child?  (a) One who has the ability to cram long essays very quickly  (b) One who has the ability to communicate fluently […]

Socialization Process

Q.1 Which of the following is not related to the socio-psychological needs of the child?     (a) Need for appreciation or social approval     (b) Need for emotional security     (c) Regular elimination of waste products from the body     (d) Nee for company   Q.2 Adjustment means accommodating oneself to […]

Constructs and Critical Perspectives on Development

Q.1 “Children actively construct their understanding of the world” is a statement attributed to    (a) Piaget              (b) Pavlov    (c) Kohlberg    (d) Skinner             Q.2 The stage in which a child begins to think logically about objects and events is known as    (a) Sensori-motor stage    (b) Formal operational stage […]

Child Growth and Development concepts, Principles

Q.1  In which of the following stages do children become active members of their peer group?             (a) Adolescence                                          (b) Adulthood             (c) Early childhood                         (d) Childhood   Q.2  “Development is a never ending process.” This idea is associated with             (a) Principle of inter-relation             (b) Principle of continuity             (c) Principle […]

(वाक्यांश के लिए एक शब्द)One Word Substitution : General Hindi

One Word Substitution   अण्डे से जन्म लेने वाला–  अण्डज अपने देश से दूसरे देश में सामान जाना–  निर्यात दूसरे देश से अपने देश में सामान आना– आयात अपनी हत्या स्वयं करना– आत्महत्या अवसर के अनुसार बदल जाने वाला– अवसरवादी आज्ञा का पालन करने वाला– आज्ञाकारी आँखों के सामने– प्रत्यक्ष आँखों से परे– परोक्ष अचानक […]

Adverb : General English

Adverb  An adverb is a word or phrase which is used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs are used in a sentence to give us more information about the sentence. They usually express the manner in which something is done. Most of the adverbs end with the common ending –ly. An adverb used to […]

Memory: Computer Aptitude

Memory Memory is the electronic holding place for the instructions and data a computer needs to reach quickly. It’s where information is stored for immediate use. Memory is one of the basic functions of a computer, because without it, a computer would not be able to function properly. Memory is also used by a computer’s […]

विलोम शब्द: General Hindi

महत्वपूर्ण विलोम शब्द शब्द (Word) विलोम शब्द अंकुश निरंकुश अंगीकार अस्वीकार अंतर बाह्य अंशतः पूर्णतः अकलुष  कलुष अकाल सुकाल अक्रुर क्रुर अगला पिछला अग्रज अनुज अग्राह्य ग्राह्य अग्रिम अन्तिम अचल चल अच्छा बुरा अजल निर्जल अज्ञ विज्ञ अतल वितल अति अल्प अतिवृष्टि अनावृष्टि अतुकान्त तुकान्त अथ इति अदेय देय अदोष सदोष अधम उत्तम अधर्म सध्दर्म […]

Adjectives: General English

Adjectives Adjectives describe a noun. Usually, a candidate gets a sentence where he/ she has to fill in the appropriate adjective or find out the given type of adjective from a sentence. Adjective questions for competitive exams are one of the most important parts of the verbal ability section of English for Entrance Exams. Questions […]

One Word Substitutions- General English

Words for various fields of study Phrase One Word Printing using a stone or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface Lithography Mapping of earth and its formation Geography Art related to ornate, good handwriting Calligraphy Scientific study of bodily diseases Pathology Study of birds Ornithology Study of celestial bodies Astronomy Study of  collection […]

पर्यायवाची शब्द-General Hindi

हिंदी में महत्वपूर्ण पर्यायवाची शब्द अग्नि — आग, अनल, पावक, वह्नि, ज्वाला, कृशानु, वैश्वानर, धनंजय, दहन, सर्वभक्षी, जातवेद, हुताशन, हव्यवान, ज्वलन, शिखा, वैसन्दर, रोहिताश्व, कृपीटयोनि, तनूनपात, शोचिष्केनश, उषर्बुध, आश्रयाश, वृहदभानु, वायुसख, चित्रभानु, विभावस्, शुचि, अप्पिन्त। अकाल — सूखा, दुर्भिक्ष, भुखमरी, कमी, काळ (राजस्थानी)। अध्यापक — गुरु, आचार्य, शिक्षक, प्रवक्ता, उपाध्याय। अमृत — सुधा, पीयूष, अमिय, […]

Idioms & Phrases-

S. No. Idioms & Phrases Meaning 1. Rank and File Ordinary People 2. By fits and starts In short periods, not regularly 3. A wee bit A little 4. Out of the wood Free from difficulties and dangers 5. Under his thumb Under his control 6. At one’s wits end In a state where one […]

मुहावरे-General Hindi

अंग से संबंधित मुहावरे  अंग गिराना –  उत्साह ना दिखाना  अंग उभारना – जवानी के लक्षण दिखाना  अंग अंग टूटना –   थकान होना ( बदन में दर्द)  अंग अंग फूला ना समाना –  अत्यधिक प्रसन्न होना  अंग अंग फड़कना –  स्फूर्ति और उर्जा से परिपूर्ण  अक्ल से संबंधित मुहावरे  अक्ल के घोड़े दौड़ाना –  केवल कल्पनाएं करना  अक्ल […]

हिन्दी लोकोक्तियाँ -General Hindi

लोकोक्तियाँ अर्थ को पूरी तरह स्पष्ट करने वाला वाक्य लोकोक्ति (lokokti) कहलाता है। लोकोक्ति (lokokti) को कहावतें भी कहते हैं। कहावतें कही हुई बातों के समर्थन में होती है। महापुरुषों, कवियों व संतों के कहे हुए ऐसे कथन जो स्वतंत्र और आम बोलचाल की भाषा में कहे गए हैं जिसमें उनका भाव निहित होता है […]

Articles- General English

Articles An article is a word used to modify a noun, which is a person, place, object, or idea. Articles are of two types. They are Indefinite article —-      A / An Definite article —-      The What’s the difference? If you want to say about particular  item, you should use the articles A or An. If you […]

संधि-General Hindi

संधि Combination संधि का शाब्दिक अर्थ है – मेला भाषा में दो वर्णों के मेल को संधि कहते हैं ।  जब दो शब्दों के बीच संधि होती है तो पहले शब्द के अंतिम वर्ण का दूसरे शब्द के प्रथम वर्ण से मेल हो जाता है ; जैसे –   पर + उपकार = परोपकार रमा + […]

काल:General Hindi

काल काल का अर्थ – समय। क्रिया के जिस रूप से कार्य के होने के समय का पता चले उसे काल कहते हैं। दूसरे शब्दों में – जिस रूप से क्रिया के होने के समय का बोध हो, उसे काल कहते हैं। जैसे – पिछले साल मेरे जन्मदिन पर मेरी दीदी ने मुझे स्केट्स दिए […]

General English: Modals


सामान्य हिंदी: ’शब्द’

’शब्द’ ध्वनियों के मेल से बने सार्थक वर्ण समुदाय को ’शब्द’ कहते हैं। शब्द अकेले और कभी दूसरे शब्दों के साथ मिलकर अपना अर्थ प्रकट करते हैं। इन्हें हम दो रूपों में पाते हैं – एक तो इनका अपना बिना मिलावट का रूप है, जिसे संस्कृत में प्रकृति या प्रातिपादिक कहते हैं और दूसरा वह, जो कारक, लिंग, […]

PREPOSITIONS- General English

   PREPOSITION: Preposition placed before a noun or pronoun and shows the relationship between the Noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. E.G: He plays to by tickets Take your friend with you OBJECTS    OF    PREPOSITION: Noun or pronoun which follows a particular preposition in a sentence-OBJECT He prefer to travel by train […]

अलंकार- General Hindi

अलंकार  : अलंकार दो शब्दों से मिलकर बना होता है – अलम + कार। यहाँ पर अलम का अर्थ होता है ‘ आभूषण। मानव समाज बहुत ही सौन्दर्योपासक है उसकी प्रवर्ती के कारण ही अलंकारों को जन्म दिया गया है। जिस तरह से एक नारी अपनी सुन्दरता को बढ़ाने के लिए आभूषणों को प्रयोग में […]

VERBS: General English

THE VERBS VERB: is a word or combination of words that indicates action or state of being or conditions  Verb is the part of a sentence that tells us what the subject performs. EXAMPLE: Sunil walks in the morning(action)                   Anu is going to school (condition of action)                   Paridhi does not like to walk […]

Simple Interest- MCQs

QA – 9 Simple Interest


Tenses Tenses play a crucial role in the English language. It denotes the time an action takes place, whether sometime in the past, in the present or will take some time in the future. From a general view of tenses, this module will go on to discuss each tense in detail with examples and also New […]


 समास : उत्तर – दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों से मिलकर बने हुए एक नवीन एवं सार्थक शब्द को समास कहते हैं। जैसे – ‘रसोई के लिए घर’ इसे हम ‘रसोईघर’ भी कह सकते हैं। समास विग्रह :  सामासिक शब्दों के बीच के संबंध को स्पष्ट करना समास-विग्रह कहलाता है। जैसे-राजपुत्र-राजा का पुत्र।  पद […]

Ratio & Proportion

Ratio & Proportion


Definition A pronoun(I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.) is a word that takes the place of a noun. In the sentence Joe saw Jill, and he waved at her, the pronouns he and her take the place of Joe and Jill, respectively. There are three types of pronouns: subject (for example, he); object (him); or possessive (his). Rule 1. Subject […]

क्रिया विशेषण

परिभाषा वह शब्द जो हमें क्रियाओं की विशेषता का बोध कराते हैं वे शब्द क्रिया विशेषण कहलाते हैं। दुसरे शब्दों में कहें तो जिन शब्दों से क्रिया की विशेषता का पता चलता है, उन शब्दों को हम क्रिया विशेषण कहते हैं। जैसे: हिरण तेज़ भागता है। इस वाक्य में भागना क्रिया है। तेज़ शब्द हमें […]

Number System

Number system with answer

Profit & Loss

QA – 8 With Answers

Syllogism – Q & A

LR – 1 with Answers (2 files merged) (1)





Problems on Ages

problem on ages

Input – Output


Problems on Ages

problem on ages


NOUN Kinds of Noun:  Proper Noun: a proper noun is the name of some particular person or place.  Ex- Ram , Shyam, Delhi.    Common Noun:A Common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same kind or class.  Ex- boy, girl, teacher etc.    Collective noun:A collective noun is […]

Computer – Output Devices

Computer – Output Devices Following are some of the important output devices used in a computer. Monitors Graphic Plotter Printer Monitors Monitors, commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU), are the main output device of a computer. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form. The sharpness of […]

Blood Relations

Blood Relations Blood Relation


क्रिया– जिस शब्द अथवा शब्द-समूह के द्वारा किसी कार्य के होने अथवा करने का बोध हो उसे क्रिया कहते हैं। जैसे- (1) गीता नाच रही है। (2) बच्चा दूध पी रहा है। (3) राकेश कॉलेज जा रहा है। (4) गौरव बुद्धिमान है। (5) शिवाजी बहुत वीर थे। इनमें ‘नाच रही है’, ‘पी रहा है’, ‘जा […]

Reading Comprehension Practice Set-2

Reading Comprehension Practice Set-2 Direction (1-5): What, one wonders, is the lowest common denominator of Indian culture today? The attractive Hema Malini? The songs of Vinidh Barati? The attractive Hema Malini? The sons of Vinidh Barati?  Or the mouth-watering Masala Dosa? Delectable as these may be, each yield pride of place to that false (?) […]

input devices

important input devices which are used in a computer − Keyboard Mouse Joy Stick Light pen Track Ball Scanner Graphic Tablet Microphone Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR) Optical Character Reader(OCR) Bar Code Reader Optical Mark Reader(OMR) Keyboard Keyboard is the most common and very popular input device which helps to input data to the computer. The […]

पाठ-बोधन (Reading Comprehension)

पाठ-बोधन (Reading Comprehension)   नीचे कुछ पाठ-बोधन पर आधारित प्रश्न दिया जा रहा है- (1) वैज्ञानिक प्रयोग की सफलता ने मनुष्य की बुद्धि का अपूर्व विकास कर दिया है। द्वितीय महायुद्ध में एटम बम की शक्ति ने कुछ क्षणों में ही जापान की अजेय शक्ति को पराजित कर दिया। इस शक्ति की युद्धकालीन सफलता ने अमेरिका, […]

Direction Test Q & A

Direction test

Coding-Decoding Q & A

coding -decoding with Answer-

Most important “IDIOMS & PHRASES”

Phrases with Meaning 1) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush– Having something that is certain is much better than taking a risk for more, because chances are you might losing everything. 2) A blessing in disguise– Something good that isn’t recognized by first 3) Bull in china shop– One who […]

Average Q & A

Average 3

Percentage Q & A

Percentage 2

Simplification Q & A

Simplification 1 with ans-

सोशल मीडिया और कानूनी सीमाएं | Legal Boundaries

सोशल मीडिया और कानूनी सीमाएं | Legal Boundaries राज्य सभा टीवी के ख़ास प्रोग्राम देश देशांतर के इस अंक में आज बात सोशल मीडिया और कानूनी सीमाएं की. पिछले कुछ दिनों से जिस तरह से सोशल मीडिया पर चाहे ट्विटर हो जिसपर अलग अलग ट्वीट हो, उस पर दिए जाने वाले ज्ञान और कंटेंट को […]

 Important One Word Substitution 

 Important One Word Substitution  Sr. No. Many Word One Word Hindi Meaning 1 A Place Where Animals Are Slaughtered For The Market Abattoir कसाईखाना 2 Shortening Something By Omitting Parts Of It Abbreviation संक्षिप्त 3 To Give Up A Throne Voluntarily Abdicate त्यागना 4 Voluntary Giving Up Of Throne In Favour Of Someone Abdication त्याग […]

Computer Vocabulary

Computer Vocabulary anti-virus software – a program that finds and removes viruses from a computer app – a self-contained program or piece of software; an application, especially when downloadable to a mobile device application – a self-contained program or piece of software backup – a copy of files from a computer’s hard disk, usually made on some external medium such as CD-ROM or flash drive. A backup is made in case […]

Generations of computer

Generations of computer 1st generation:-  1946-1959:-The first generation of electronic computer started with the use of Vaccum Tubes. ENIAC (electronical numerical integrator and calculator) designed by John Machlly and john Eckert, was the world first generation purpose digital computer. It was very huge machine occupying 15000 sq ft floor space consuming 140 kw of power […]

Introduction to Computers

Introduction to Computers Computer full form:- C-Common O-Operating M–Machine P-particularly U–Used for T-Technological and E- Educational R– Research. Definition:- computer is an electronic device which takes data process it according to given instruction and gives information, moreover it can store data instruction and information in memory, reproduce them when it needed. History of computers 2500 […]

General English

Reading Comprehension Practice Set-1 Elections were in the air of the world’s youngest democracy when I arrived in Thimphu. This was for a by-election in the capital city, that dominated the conversation at dinners, even in Thimphu’s most fun night-spot Mojo Park (the best music in town). Bhutan has taken to democracy with ease ever […]


संज्ञा संज्ञा उस विकारी शब्द को कहते है, जिससे किसी विशेष वस्तु, भाव और जीव के नाम का बोध हो, दूसरे शब्दों में- किसी प्राणी, वस्तु, स्थान, गुण या भाव के नाम को संज्ञा कहते है। जैसे- प्राणियों के नाम- मोर, घोड़ा, अनिल, किरण, जवाहरलाल नेहरू आदि। वस्तुओ के नाम– अनार, रेडियो, किताब, सन्दूक, आदि। […]


सर्वनाम की परिभाषा: संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त वाले शब्दों को सर्वनाम कहा जाता है। सर्वनाम संज्ञाओं की पुनरावृति रोककर वाक्यों को सौंदर्ययुक्त बनता है। सर्वनाम के उदाहरण: आइये एक उदाहरण के द्वारा सर्वनाम को विस्तार से समझते हैं। नीचे लिखे वाक्यों को ध्यानपूर्वक देखे – : 1. पेड़-पौधे प्रकाश-संश्लेषण की क्रिया के दरम्यान ऑक्सीजन […]

Varnamala (वर्णमाला)

Varnamala (वर्णमाला) ______________________________________ वर्णों के समूह को वर्णमाला कहते हैं। इसमें 48 वर्ण होते हैं और 11 स्वर होते हैं। व्यंजनों की संख्या 33 होती है जबकि कुल व्यंजन 35 होते हैं। दो उच्छिप्त व्यंजन एवं दो अयोगवाह होते हैं। वर्णमाला के भेद वर्णमाला को मुख्य रूप से दो भागो में बाँटा गया है : […]

General Science

General Science -final

History of H.P. Set-2 (part-I & part -II)

Set-2 (part-I) Set-2 (Part-II)

Profit And Loss Questions Answer


History of HP set-1


Problems On Ages Question Answer

Problems on Ages Questions Answers

MCQS on Percentage

Percentage mcqS

Famous Personality of Himachal Pradesh

Famous Personality of Himachal Pradesh

History of Shimla

history of Shimla







Rules on ARTICLES (Basic Grammar)

rules on article

Adm. History of HP

Administrative History

Geography of Himachal


मंड़ी का इतिहास

मण्डी का इतिहास

1857 का गदर – Audio Notes















Old-NCERT Ancient-India-History-Class-XI-Part-2

Old-NCERT Ancient-India-History-Class-XI-Part-2

HP Allied Previous Year Paper

2016_4_Allied Pre-2015

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